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The National Whitewater Slalom Committee, as constituted under Chapter V (8) Bylaws of the USA Canoe and Kayak Team hereby promulgates the following rules to govern slalom competition.
The object of slalom competition is to negotiate a rapid-river course, defined by gates, without fault, in the shortest possible time.
1. Championship competitions are here defined to be, USACK Regional or National Championships, or trials races for any United States Team. These must be run in accordance with these NWSC rules.
2. International Competitions where other nations are invited to participate, must be run in accordance with the ICF rules.
1. Non-championship or local races should be run in general compliance with these rules, though some reasonable adaptations to suit local conditions may be made after discussion with the NWSC.
2. A non-championship race may be conducted in conjunction with a championship event provided the additional entries can be accommodated without jeopardizing the championship event.
A. Only amateur canoeists who are members in good standing of USACK may compete in championship competitions, except as provided in Article 3.C. In addition, for National Championships or team trials, the competitor must be a citizen of the USA, married to a citizen of the USA (see ICF 3.4.3), or a bona fide resident of the USA for two years and must be registered with the USACK. For regional championship awards, the competitor must be a member of that region.
B. In all races the competitor must be a bona fide member of the club or federation under which he/she registers, or he/she must race unattached.
C. A Race Organizer may, if desired, permit the entry of visiting foreign competitors provided they are members of their National Federation, though such competitors are not eligible for any championship awards.
By December 1 of each year, each regional representative shall send to the National Whitewater Slalom Chair the dates of the competitions proposed to be held in his/her region in the coming year. Proposed championships should be noted, and for each race it should be indicated which ranking levels (ABCD) of paddlers will be permitted to enter. By February 1 the competition calendar shall be published in one or more widely circulated publications including Canoe and Kayak Racing News and on the NWSC web site.
A. Slalom is carried out in the following boat types:
1. Single kayak (K-1): minimum length 4.00 m, minimum width 60 cm, minimum weight 9 kg.
2. Single canoe (C-1): minimum length 4.00 m, minimum width 70 cm, minimum weight 10kg.
3. Double canoe (C-2): minimum length 4.58 m, minimum width 80 cm, minimum weight 15kg.
Note: The spray deck is considered to be an accessory and not part of the boat.
B. All kayaks must be propelled by a double-bladed paddle from a sitting position. All canoes must be propelled by a single-bladed paddle from a kneeling position. All boats must have minimum radii at each end of 2 cm horizontally and 1 cm vertically. Rudders are prohibited on all boats. Any boat which does not conform to these requirements shall not be accepted. It is not permissible to make the boats meet the required dimensions by the addition of taped on extensions or by similar means. The boat should be designed to, and remain within, the required permanent nature except where applied to repair damage occurring during an event, and must in no case constitute a potential safety hazard. No other dimensional or shape requirements apply.
1. The international Categories are K-1 (men), K-1W (women), C-1 (men), and C-2 (men).
These shall be offered at all competitions, at least three starting boats
being required to form a class.
2. Additional USACK categories are C-1W (women), C-2W (women), and C-2M (mixed).
These shall also be offered at all competitions, with at least
three starting boats being required to form a class.
3. Optional or special categories may be formed at the discretion of the
Organizers for non-championship races at which the demand for them is
sufficient. These may include, but are not limited to, classes for open
canoes, junior - size boats, and special designations such as C-2
2. Additional USACK categories are C-1W (women), C-2W (women), and C-2M (mixed).
These shall also be offered at all competitions, with at least
three starting boats being required to form a class.
3. Optional or special categories may be formed at the discretion of the
Organizers for non-championship races at which the demand for them is
sufficient. These may include, but are not limited to, classes for open
canoes, junior - size boats, and special designations such as C-2
3. Optional or special categories may be formed at the discretion of the Organizers for non-championship races at which the demand for them is sufficient. These may include, but are not limited to, classes for open canoes, junior - size boats, and special designations such as C-2 Father/Son, etc.
When team events are offered, teams of three boats may be formed in any of the categories listed in Article 6.A. Combining categories to form teams is at the discretion of the Organizers.
1. Any of all of the categories in Article 6.A may be subdivided according to age groups if the demand for such subdivision is sufficient. The definitions of these categories are as follows:
a. Cadet is a paddler who has not reached his/her 15th birthday in the year of the competition.
b. The first year a Junior competitor can compete in a junior category is the year in which his/her 15th birthday falls and the last year he/she may compete as a junior is the year in which his/her 18th birthday falls.
c. A Senior is a paddler who has reached his/her 30th birthday as of January 1 of the current year, but has not reached his/her 40th birthday as of January 1 of the current year.
d. A Master is a paddler who has reached his/her 40th birthday as of January 1 of the current year.
e. The Open class is open to any contestant regardless of age.
2. Competitors in age group categories are eligible for awards only in that category, and may not win an award or be given a place ranking in the Open category.
Any or all of the categories in Article 6.A.1 and 6.A.2 may be subdivided according to the NWSC National Paddler Rankings at the discretion of the Organizers. All four ranking groups may be used separately, or only a partial subdivision into AB and CD groups may be used if desired. When age group categories (Article 6.C) are offered, only the Open may be subdivided by ranking.
A competitor may take part in two individual categories and, if offered, two team categories. This limit may be waived by the Organizers if they wish to accept the additional entries. and can accommodate them without jeopardizing the smooth operation of the race.
In the event there are not three boats registered and starting in a given class, the competitors in this class may be included in a comparable class of higher difficulty rating. For example, C-2M may be merged with C-2, Junior K-1 with K-1, C-1W with C-1, etc. However, a competitor may not be permitted to compete twice in the came class as a result of such a merger. For example, if C-2W is merged with C-2M, a competitor entered in both of these events would have to withdraw from one of them, or could choose to have her C-2W entry merged with C-2 rather than C-2M. A competitor may withdraw and receive a refund of entry fee if he/she does not with to compete in such a combined class.
A. According to its nature and importance, a slalom shall be supervised by the following officials:
|Chief Official *||Finish Judge|
|Course Designer *||Gate Judges|
|Technical Organizer *||Section Judges *|
|Chief Judge *||Chief of Scoring|
|Pre-Starter Controller||Safety Officer|
B. Those Officials indicated by and asterisk(*) should be ICF certified International Slalom Judges (IJSL). It is imperative that the Chief Judge be so certified. Additionally, for National Championships and Team Trials, Section Judges should be certified (IJSL) insofar as possible.
1. The Chief Official of every slalom shall appoint a Jury of three, five, or seven members. The Chief Judge shall be the chair of the Jury, and at National Championships and Team Trials competitions shall be appointed by the NWSC. At National level events it is recommended that the jury consist of ICF certified judges, and at Olympic Team Trials, National Team Trials and Nationals it is required that the jury consist of ICF certified judges.
2. The Jury controls the correct running of the slalom, receives any protests concerning the nonobservance of these rules, and ultimately decides in the event of disagreement on the interpretation of these rules insofar as possible, but it must also decide on all matters arising during the race which are not covered herein. The Jury can disqualify a competitor for all or part of the race.
3. A member of the Jury must not vote in a decision involving a member of his/her own club, family member or (if he/she is a competitor) a decision involving his/her own category of competition.
A. The Chief Official directs the preparation and execution of the race in accordance with these rules. He/she appoints the Jury and other of officials as needed to assure the smooth execution of the race.
B. The Registrar is responsible for the processing of all race entries, verification of entry qualifications (if any), and preparation of the starting order. He/she is responsible for the post-race distribution of results and the filing of other reports.
C. The Course Designer is responsible for the course design and the correct hanging of the gates. He/she must be prepared to have necessary adjustments and repairs effected as needed. Routine adjustments of pole height are done under his/her authority. Major course adjustments require the concurrence of the Chief Judge.
D. The Technical Organizer is responsible for the setup and maintenance of lines of communication between start and finish and between the judges and the scoring office. He/she is responsible for the installation and proper functioning of all technical equipment required for the competition.
E. The Chief Judge is responsible for the correct running of the race in accordance with these rules. He/she interprets these rules, and has the right to disqualify a competitor or grant a rerun. He/she is the chair of the Jury. He/she shall ensure that all gate judging stations are properly manned, or he/she may appoint an assistant to carry out this function. If correctable changes in the course occur, he/she will stop the competition until the original conditions are reestablished.
F. The Starter ensures that competitors start in the correct order.
1. He/she can refuse to start a competitor if the latter:
a. fails to respect the safety rules;
b. fails to present himself/herself on time for his/her run after being called;
c. appears without his/her correct number bib, or
d. fails to follow the Starter's orders.
2. If a false start occurs, the Starter determines if a second start is to be given, and notifies the Chief Judge.
G. The Pre-Start Controller is responsible for checking in boats at the start, calling competitors, enforcing the safety rules (see Article 16), and checking that the boats have been marked by the Boat Controller. He/she must prevent any competitor from starting if the required safety measures have not been followed.
H. The Finish Judge, in conjunction with the Starter, ensures that times are properly taken. He/she must rule on disqualification for capsize at the finish line, and may disqualify for violation of the safety rules.
I. The Timekeepers shall assist the Finish Judge in taking times. All stopwatch times must be independently read by two timekeepers.
J. The Gate Judges shall judge the negotiation of gates in accordance with Articles 22 and 27. Each judging station shall be manned by at least two Gate Judges for individual runs, and by at least three Gate Judges for team runs. No station may be manned solely by members of the same club unless it is the club which is organizing the race, and the judges involved are non competitors. A single judging station may judge several gates, provided all may be clearly seen. Gate Judges shall take special care to note any disagreement on scoring on their score sheets.
K. The Section Judges oversee all the duties of the Gate Judges in the section of the course allotted. It is the Section Judge's responsibility to ensure that the correct penalty or correct judgment is given on the gates within his/her section. He/she is assisted by Gate Judges. A section consists of one or more judging stations. Section Judges must whistle a competitor off the course in the event of overtaking, in accordance with Article 28. Section Judges must notify the Course Designer of necessary adjustments to the gates.
L. The Chief of Scoring is responsible for the calculation, tabulation, and posting of results. He/she shall indicate the time of posting for each category as it is completed.
M. The Boat Controller ensures that the dimensions of all boats conform to the regulations and marks them accordingly. He/she also ensures that life jackets and other equipment conform to the safety rules and may mark them.
N. The Safety Officer, assisted by his/her team and according to the circumstances, shall do his/her utmost for the rescue of competitors who have capsized and shall make a reasonable effort to recover their equipment. He/she shall have overall responsibility for on-the-water safety measures. The nature of the safety measures employed shall be commensurate with the difficulty of the course and the skill of the competitors.
O. An official can, if need be, take on two or more functions. Officials are forbidden to give competitors on the course technical advice by calling or in any other way.
The invitation and entry form for a slalom event should be distributed at least four weeks prior to the entry deadline. The invitation should include the following information:
A. Time and place of the competition.
B. Description of the course, including water conditions and degree of difficulty.
D. Sequence and approximate starting times of the classes.
E. Any specific championships to be contested.
E Safety measures.
G. Address to which entries should be sent and amount of entry fee to be paid.
H. Last date for entries to be post-marked.
1. Whether late entries will be accepted and, if so, amount of extra fee.
J. Time and place of the draw.
K. Limitations on entries, if any.
L. Required work assignments for competitors, if any.
M. Regulations on training runs.
N. Camping, meals, other accommodations for competitors and officials.
O. Any other information as deemed necessary by the Organizers.
A. Entries for a slalom shall be on the official form provided with the invitation or a suitable facsimile, and shall be in accordance with NWSC rules and any additional rules as given on the invitation. An entry shall always include the name and address of the competitor, his/her USACK number, the club he/ she represents (if any), the categories he/she wishes to enter, the names of partner(s) and team member(s) as applicable, and ranking division for each category. The entry form, including the USACK liability waiver form, must be signed and must be accompanied by the applicable entry fee. A competitor 17 years or younger on Dec. 31 of the current year must also have parents or guardians sign the liability waiver form.
B. Whenever possible, any entry rejections shall be sent by mail to affected competitors with a letter of explanation Withdrawal of an entry for good cause prior to race day, or cancellation of the race by the Organizers, should result in at least a partial refund, an amount being held by the Organizers to cover handling costs. Alteration of entries after the deadline may be accepted only at the discretion of the Chief Official.
The starting order within each category shall normally be determined by a draw of all competitors registered by the entry deadline or by a seeding based on the NWSC rankings and recent race results. In order to make the race run more smoothly when a wide range of ability levels are entered, the competitors may be divided into two or three groups and a draw done for each group. Late entries, if allowed, shall be placed at the beginning of each class. After the draw, a start list shall be printed and made available to the competitors prior to the start of the race. Changes in the starting order after the draw may be made only for a demonstrable good reason.
All competitors may be expected to perform some task necessary to the running of the race. Failure to perform the assigned task, unless excused by the Chief Official, will result in disqualification. The assignment list should be printed and attached to the start list. In making assignments, the Organizers should make every effort to ensure that late entrants do not escape an assignment by virtue of being late.
Application for race sanctioning shall be made to the USACK office.
A. All sanctioned events will comply with all on-the-water safety aspects of the Event Sanctioning Standards. Safety and Risk Management Standards should be strictly followed.
A. At the organizer's discretion a training run may be allowed on the completed course. Training runs are not mandatory. They must ensure that during the runs:
1. An official is put in charge and his/her instructions are carried out.
2. Starting numbers are used.
3. Safety measures are carried out, and if no rescue service is available, the competitors are so advised and they are required to lend each other assistance as necessary.
4. All runs are non-stop, with each gate being done only once. Repeated passage of a gate is allowed only when it is one of a sequence of gates that constitutes a single technical maneuver, so recognized by the Course Designer.
B. Open or unlimited training may be permitted at the discretion of the Organizers. All of the above rules should be adhered to, including required non-stop runs, in order that the training be carried out smoothly and safely.
C. Non-observance of any of these requirements can lead to disqualification. If a paddle breaks during training, outside assistance is permitted. In the event of a capsize, or rendering aid to another who has capsized, the training run can be resumed from the point of capsize or the point of departure from the the course to give aid.
D.The Organizers are advised to have all personnel at their stations and all systems activated for testing during practice.
A. At a meeting held prior to the start of the race, all competitors shall be given any pertinent information regarding the running of the race such as: emergency procedures, start and finish lines, starting times, intervals, and order, Starter's commands (countdown or electronic signal), safety regulations, procedures for protests, boat transport, and any other matters of importance. It is particularly important to cover any late changes in the course, hazardous spots, or gates to be omitted by some classes. Competitors may ask questions about the course or the operation of the race. Additional meetings may be held as deemed necessary by the Chief Official. Information presented at these meetings shall also be posted on a bulletin board for the benefit of competitors who missed the meeting.
B. Particularly for important races, the Organizers are advised to deal with competitors through Team Leaders, thus allowing the competitors to concentrate on race preparation by freeing them from meetings.
A. All boats must be made unsinkable. In doubtful cases, boats will undergo flotation testing, which will require a boat filled with water to float nearly level on the surface of the water.
B. All boats must be equipped with end loops, for which the point(s) of attachment must be no more than 30cm from the end of the boat. The loops must be large enough to allow the easy insertion of the entire hand up to the base of the thumb, and the cord from which they are made must have a minimum diameter of 6mm. Flat webbing with a minimum cross section of 2 by 10mm may be used. Aside from their points of permanent attachment, the end loops must be free and unfettered. They may not be held in place by tape, rubber bands, Velcro, or other means.
C. Each competitor shall wear a fastened safety helmet and a life jacket, which shall consist of nonabsorbent flotation material equally distributed in a jacket or vest worn about the upper torso front and back. It must have a buoyancy sufficient to float a 6kg solid lead weight or its equivalent in other metals, and should be designed to keep a conscious person floating in a face-up position in the water. Competitors failing to observe this rule shall be refused the right to start. Organizers are advised to make spot checks of the buoyancy of life jackets at the finish. A child under 90 pounds may wear a life jacket with buoyancy rate approved by the United States Coast Guard for his/her weight in lieu of the above buoyancy requirement.
D. Competitors must at all times be in a position to free themselves immediately from their boats.
E. In all cases competitors participate at their own risk. Neither the NWSC, USACK, nor the Organizers can be held responsible for accidents to persons or material damage which may occur during a competition.
F. In the absence of a rescue squad or professional care giver there must be at least one person on hand during the entire event who is currently certified in CPR and basic first aid. A basic first aid kit must be readily available to this person.
G. The Safety Officer shall designate stations where throw bags must be available.
H. Every Section Judge must have a whistle.
I. Three boats must remain at the end of the course at all times for safety. The number may be reduced to two at the discretion of the Organizers. This function will always be required of competitors unless specifically relieved and other measures have been provided by the Organizers. The Organizers should make every effort to provide other safety measures, particularly for the first boats in each class and following breaks (as per Article 16.J).
J. According to the difficulty of the course and the experience of the
competitors, safety boats and/or other safety measures shall be provided
along the course.
K. Non-observance of any of these requirements can lead to
disqualification. Every official is required to observe that the safety
measures are adhered to. The Starter and the Pre-Start Controller must
prevent boats or competitors from starting if they Ail to meet the
requirements of this Article. Any time lost at the start as a result of
safety violations goes against the competitor.
L. The Safety Officer shall submit a written report to the NWSC and to
the entity sanctioning the event, outlining any injuries to competitors.
If medical attention was required, a report from the attending physician
on nature, extent of injuries, and treatment received should be obtained
K. Non-observance of any of these requirements can lead to disqualification. Every official is required to observe that the safety measures are adhered to. The Starter and the Pre-Start Controller must prevent boats or competitors from starting if they Ail to meet the requirements of this Article. Any time lost at the start as a result of safety violations goes against the competitor.
L. The Safety Officer shall submit a written report to the NWSC and to the entity sanctioning the event, outlining any injuries to competitors. If medical attention was required, a report from the attending physician on nature, extent of injuries, and treatment received should be obtained and submitted.
For an individual or team contest to take place, at least three boats or three teams must take part. It is, however, not necessary for all three boats or teams to complete the course for the contest to remain valid. Less than three may race informally if the Organizers approve, or categories may be combined (see Article 6.F).
Starting numbers shall be provided by the Organizers. They shall be fixed to the body of the competitor in such a manner that they can be seen clearly. In C-2 only the bow paddler wears the number. Each competitor is responsible for his/her starting number. The number should be unique for each boat and must not be reused by another competitor, or by the same competitor in another class at the same race. The numerals must be at least 15cm high, and have a line width of at least 1.5cm.
A. The course may not be less than 250 meters in length, measured from the starting line to the finish line, and it is recommended that the maximum length be no more than 400 meters. The recommended minimum time for the K-1 men on the course should be no less than 100 seconds and the maximum time should be no more than 130 seconds. As far as possible the course should contain natural and artificial hazards, such as current, eddies, rapids, rocks, bridge piers, etc. It shall contain at least 18 (non championship courses may reduce this number) and not more than 25 gates, of which at least six are upstream gates. The distance between the last gate and the finish line must be no less than 15 meters and no more than 25 meters. The finish line must be clearly marked on both sides and downstream of the final gate.
B. The Organizers are advised to design the course in such a manner that smooth, continuous runs may be expected from the better paddlers in all categories at the level of skill for which the competition is intended. Excessive criss-crossing should be avoided, and the gates must not be so close together as to impair negotiation or judging. Reasonable balance between left and right handed moves must be provided. The course must be navigable throughout, without excessive hazard to life, limb, or equipment. Particularly difficult gates may be omitted for some categories at the discretion of the Organizers or upon a vote of the Jury. The final approach and negotiation of a gate must not be unduly hindered, such as by an isolated submerged rock or other obstruction. The ideal course should include reverse maneuvers. The final course layout must be approved by the Jury prior to the start of official training.
C. If during a run in some category the Chief Judge finds that a significant change in the water level has occurred that may be corrected, he/she may stop the competition until the original water conditions are restored. If during the competition unusual circumstances alter the nature or design of the course, only the Chief Judge may authorize alteration to or change the position of a gate.
A. The gates consist of two suspended poles painted with five green and
five white rings for downstream gates, and five red and five white rings
for upstream gates, with the bottom rings always being white. Gates flush
to the current may be either red or green, whichever seems more
appropriate in each instance. The width of the gates is 1.2m minimum, and
3.5m maximum, measured between the poles. The poles must be round, at
least 2m long, 3.5 to 5cm in diameter, and of sufficient weight that
motion caused by the wind is not excessive.
The lower ends of the poles should be approximately 15 cm above the
water, and the poles must not be put in motion by the water.
Gates must be numbered in the order of
negotiation. The gate number panels must measure 30cm x 30cm. The numbers
must be painted on both sides of the panels, black on a yellow or white
background, and must be at least 20cm high and have a line width of 2cm.
On the side of the panel opposite the direction of correct negotiation, a
diagonal red line is painted, bottom left to top right.
B. The gate supports should not be placed so high as to permit excessive
motions due to the wind. If such placement is unavoidable, a second
crossbar and/or additional strings should be used to stabilize the gate.
C. The course must be the same for both runs as nearly as practicable.
Gates and gate poles should not be changed after competition has begun
unless to restore the course to its original condition. Such changes may
only be made with explicit permission and direction from the Chief Judge.
B. The gate supports should not be placed so high as to permit excessive motions due to the wind. If such placement is unavoidable, a second crossbar and/or additional strings should be used to stabilize the gate.
C. The course must be the same for both runs as nearly as practicable. Gates and gate poles should not be changed after competition has begun unless to restore the course to its original condition. Such changes may only be made with explicit permission and direction from the Chief Judge.
A. For the purposes of these rules the following definitions apply:
1. The Gate Line is an imaginary line drawn between the tips of two poles at any instant, whether they are hanging straight down or have been brought into motion by wind or contact. An imaginary extension of a pole may be needed to define the gate line in some cases involving large motions. This extension shall be drawn vertically from the lower tip of the pole to the river bottom.
2. The Body of a competitor means torso and head. Hands and arms are not considered to be part of the body in this context.
3. The Start Line is considered to be equivalent to a gate.
4. A Live Gate is any gate that is still subject to penalties.
5. A Dead Gate is one for which negotiation is completed (Article 21.D). No additional penalties can be charged on a dead gate.
B. All gates must be negotiated in numerical order, each in accordance with the direction established by the correct side of the number panels, as defined in Article 20.A. Any boat presentation (forward, reverse, or broad-side) is correct.
C. Negotiation of a gate begins when:
1. The boat or the paddler or paddle touches a pole of the gate; OR
2. Any part of the body (torso and head) crosses the gate line.
D. Negotiation of a gate is completed when the negotiation of any
subsequent gate begins or the finish line is crossed.
E. Negotiation of a gate is correct when the body (at least the
complete head) of the competitor (in C-2 both competitors) and part of
the boat has at the same instant, crossed the gate line in the correct
direction, and the boat has continued through,
and left the gate line.
F. Negotiation of a gate is faultless when, in addition to being correct,
neither pole has been touched by the boat, paddler, or paddle and
negotiation of the gate is completed.
E. Negotiation of a gate is correct when the body (at least the complete head) of the competitor (in C-2 both competitors) and part of the boat has at the same instant, crossed the gate line in the correct direction, and the boat has continued through, and left the gate line.
F. Negotiation of a gate is faultless when, in addition to being correct, neither pole has been touched by the boat, paddler, or paddle and negotiation of the gate is completed.
A. Penalties are not cumulative at a single gate. If more than one infraction occurs, only the one highest penalty is assessed. All gates are scored 0, 2, or 50 as follows:
1. No penalty-Faultless negotiation.
2. 2 second penalty-Correct negotiation, but touching one or both poles.
3. 50 second penalty-Gate touched but not negotiated. Lack of negotiation is judged to have occurred only after negotiation of any subsequent gate begins or the finish line is crossed.
4. 50 second penalty-Intentional pushing aside of a pole in an attempt to lessen a penalty. This penalty is assessed only if the intentional pushing materially affects the negotiation of the gate. It is not judged an intentional push when the body and boat of the competitor was already in a position in which it would have negotiated the gate.
5. 50 second penalty-Eskimo rolling while the body (in C2 either body or between the bodies) is within the gate. A roll is judged to have occurred if the entire torso (trunk of the body, not including arms and head) of the competitor (in C-2 either competitor) is under the surface of the water.
6. 50 second penalty-Negotiation of a gate in the direction opposite to that indicated by the number panel. During any negotiation any part of the head must at no time cross the gate line in the wrong direction.
7. 50 second penalty-Gate left out. Gate(s) left out is determined to have occurred when negotiation of any subsequent gate begins OR the finish line is crossed.
8. 50 second penalty-Movement of the competitor's body in the wrong direction while it is between the poles. This means that once a competitor has broken the gate line from the correct side, he/she must continue through until clear of the gate, without dropping back. In the case of an upstream gate in current, if dropping back is so minor as to have occurred between normal paddling strokes, it is not to be penalized. In C-2, the two bodies are considered as a unit, and both must continue through after one has crossed the gate line.
9. 50 second penalty-Failure of all three boats of a team to cross the finish line within 15 seconds.
1. Once negotiation of a gate is completed (Article 21.D), that gate is immediately dead and no further penalties can be incurred.
2. Passing of the boat or trunk only underneath a pole without touching (undercutting) is not penalized.
3. In all doubtful or borderline cases, the competitor is given the benefit of the doubt and the lower penalty. In particular, if a Judge is in doubt as to whether movement of a pole was caused by contact or by a water splash, no penalty for a pole touch may be given.
4. Repeated negotiations of a gate are not penalized provided renegotiations are in the correct direction and no poles are touched.
5. Repeated touching of the same pole is only penalized once.
6. In addition to the interpretations listed here, there shall be a series of numbered diagrams which shall depict various judging situations. These shall be considered an integral part of these rules.
7. In judging whether the body of a competitor has correctly crossed the gate line, it is only necessary for the complete head to have passed between the poles in the correct direction at the same time a piece of the boat passes through the gate line.
8. Inadvertent pushing of a gate to allow negotiation is not judged an intentional push when the body and the boat of the competitor was already in a position in which it would have negotiated the gate.
C. Placement of Judges-Judging stations, or individual Gate Judges, must be located so that all situations can be clearly observed. It is advised that Judges have two distinct viewpoints for each gate when possible.
The Eskimo roll is not regarded as a capsize. In team races, the members of a team may help each other to roll up. If a competitor leaves his/her boat, he/she is disqualified for that run. He/she must immediately leave the course in the most expeditious manner. If a member of a team leaves his/her boat in a team contest, the whole team is disqualified for that run and must leave the course in the most expeditious manner. Failure to leave the course after capsize will result in disqualification for both runs.
A slalom consists of two runs, and the total of the two counts as the final result. For the team contest, this may be reduced to one run. Where a competition is held on uncontrolled water, both runs in a category must be on the same day.
A. The time of a run is taken from the moment of the Starter's Signal, with the boat held at a fixed starting point, to the moment the finish line is cut by the competitor's body (in C-2 the first body) If electronic timing is used, the clock may be started by the paddler or his/her boat. In team events, the finish time is taken when the finish line is cut by the competitor 's body in the third boat. Crossing the finish line upside down disqualifies for that run. The boat is regarded as upside down when the whole of the competitor's torso (trunk of the body, not including arms and head) is under water. A competitor's run is complete when he/she crosses the finish line. He/she may not cross the finish line more than once. In the team event, all three boats must cross the finish line within 15 seconds of each other.
B. Digital watches should be used and watches should be of the same type to avoid confusion among timers.
C. The times must be recorded in minutes and seconds, then converted to seconds on paper. Precise timing and rounding methods must be specified prior to the start of the race.
D. All times must be independently read by two timekeepers. The Organizers are advised to provide backup timing, which should be read and recorded independently of the main timing. This is mandatory for National Championships and Team Trials. See Appendix for information on correlation's of back up system.
A. For the calculation of the results, the following formula applies: Time in seconds + Penalties = Score
Example of an individual result:
Time elapsed: 2 minutes, 20.8 seconds = 140.8 seconds
Penalties: 2 + 2 + 50 + 50 = 104.0 seconds
Total Score = 244.8 seconds
B. For a team event, the individual penalties for each of the three boats and the team penalty (if any) are all added to the total elapsed time in seconds to arrive at the team score.
A. Gate Judges shall mark the penalties incurred by each boat on penalty sheets provided for this purpose. Unusual or questionable circumstances, or disagreements on scoring, should also be noted. Care should be taken to number these sheets sequentially, and to clearly indicate first and second runs, and reruns, if any. Gate Judges' penalty sheets shall be picked up periodically throughout the race and delivered to Scoring. All penalty sheets shall be delivered to Scoring at the end of the day's events. If telephones are available, penalties shall be reported to Scoring as frequently as practicable, but such reporting must not interfere with the direct recording of penalties by the Judges.
B. Gate Judges are provided with marked disks to communicate with the public. The disks shall be marked as follows: a double-sided red disk without marking, and two double-sided yellow disks marked with black figures 2 and 50. Results are signaled as follows:
1. Clean (negotiation without touching)-No signal is given.
2. Negotiation with penalty-The appropriate yellow disk held steady
3. Disqualification-The red disk waved from side to side.
C. Judges are forbidden to communicate with the competitors on the course in regard to their faults or their technique in any manner whatsoever. Competitors are forbidden to interfere with the Judges at any time. (See Article 32.D for appropriate methods of inquiry or protest.) Signals by judges should be given at a time when they will not alter the action of the competitor. (In the case of a 2 or 50 call on a gate where the competitor can recycle, neither the 2, nor the 50 should be signaled until the competitor either goes on to the next gate or recycles back to make sure he/ she goes through the gate.
The signal to clear the course is repeated short whistle blasts, given by the nearest Section Judge. Upon hearing such a signal, a competitor must immediately pull in to shore and await further instructions from the Section Judge. Reasons for whistling a competitor over include overtaking, as well as difficulties with the timing of his/her run or a gate out of position further down the course. In the latter cases a rerun will always be granted.
1. When overtaking occurs, the normal procedure is to whistle over the overtaken boat and permit the overtaking boat free passage. The Judge must ensure that the interrupted run is not resumed so soon as to cause immediate re-overtaking. Any time lost goes against the overtaken boat, and he/she will be granted no rerun unless highly extenuating circumstances prevail.
2. On rare occasion the overtaking boat may be whistled over and held, allowing the overtaken boat to continue. This could occur if the overtaken boat is running the course correctly, while the overtaking boat is doing so by running largely out of control and missing gates (the "Mad Bomber"). Any time lost goes against the boat whistled over, and there will normally be no rerun.
1. If a competitor has been interfered with by another boat, he/she may be granted a rerun with the authority of the Chief Judge. To merit a rerun, interference must be substantial and unavoidable, presenting a material impediment to the course.
a. Contact usually, but not always, is interference.
b. Lack of contact usually, but not always, is not interference.
c. Intentional contact where it could have been avoided, or other unsportsmanlike conduct in attempting to create interference to obtain a rerun will not be tolerated and could result in disqualification.
2. Normally a rerun will be granted only to the overtaking boat. Only under highly extenuating circumstances would a rerun be granted to the overtaken boat (for example, see Article 28.B.2) or to both boats. Extra care must be taken to ensure that no overtaking occurs during a rerun.
3. If a rerun is taken, the score for the original run is canceled and may not be considered for placement or listed in the results.
Ideally, only one competitor is on the course at a time. If the entry is numerous and the time is limited, the Chief Official can decide on a shorter starting interval. This can be a fixed time interval or it can be based upon progress of the preceding boat to some point down the course. The latter is recommended if the competitors are of varied abilities and are not seeded (see Article 11). If the starting interval is not fixed, a competitor should be able to request extra time before or after his/her run if the preceding boat is markedly slower.
In the event of two or more competitors obtaining the same result a tie is declared.
If a competitor loses or breaks a paddle, only a spare carried on the boat may be used. In team events, the spare paddle of another member of the team may be used.
A. Any action by a Race Official, or lack of action where action is called for, is protestable unless specifically prohibited.
B. All protests must be lodged with the Chief Judge in writing, together with a fee set by the Organizers but not exceeding $25. This fee is refunded if the protest is upheld by the Chief Judge or by the Jury. If it is not upheld, the Organizers retain the fee.
C. A protest concerning the right of a competitor to participate must be handed to the Chief Official not later than one hour before the start of the competition. Protest against the right of a competitor to participate may be lodged with the National Whitewater Slalom Committee within 30 days of the competition if they are based on facts which became known later than one hour before the start of the competition.
D. Protests against decisions made during the competition must be lodged
with the Chief Judge in writing not later than 20 minutes after the
official results of the particular category have been posted. If this time
limit conflicts with the competitor's work assignment, then the time
shall be extended to 20 minutes after his/her relief from duty. An
inquiry, without fee, may be filed by verbally requesting the Chief Judge
to check the correctness of a posted score. If dissatisfied, the protester
may still file a written protest provided the score in question is his/
her own. No one may protest the score, time, or penalties of another
a. If backup timing is provided by the Organizers, and both times are in
substantial agreement no protest is allowed.
b. If there is no backup timing, or if the main and backup times disagree,
a protest will be considered.
c. If faced with compelling evidence of a specific error in a time, the
Jury may adjust the time accordingly. A frequent cause of such error would
be a one minute error in reading a watch.
d. If facced with compelling evidence of an irretrievable error in a time,
or if the of official time is lost, the Chief Judge may grant a rerun.
a. No rerun may be granted when the protest involves a gate penalty.
b. None of the following limitations are intended to prevent the
protesting of an alleged rules misinterpretation.
c. If two Gate Judges, or a Gate Judge and Section Judge, operating
independently and from different vantage points agree, no protest is
allowed. If they disagree and the disagreement cannot be otherwise
resolved, the lesser penalty must be assessed, so there will be no protest
allowed. If one Judge assesses a penalty but the other is uncertain or
did not see it clearly, a protest will be considered.
d. If only one Judge saw the disputed infraction, or if two Judges were
operating together from the same vantage point, a protest will be
e. To be considered, a judging protest must be accompanied by the
signatures of two witnesses. The Jury must consider both the vantage
points and credibility of the witnesses. To dispute the agreed call of two
Judges, as in (d) above, the vantage point(s) of the witnesses must be
clearly superior to that of the Judges. If it upholds the protest, the
Jury will direct the Chief of Scoring to reduce the disputed penalty.
f. Video is not allowed as support for a protest and is not to be
reviewed or considered by the Chief Judge or Jury in rendering a decision.
3. Interference-lf a competitor is interfered with by another boat or by
an act of an Official, he/she may be granted a rerun in accordance with
a. If backup timing is provided by the Organizers, and both times are in substantial agreement no protest is allowed.
b. If there is no backup timing, or if the main and backup times disagree, a protest will be considered.
c. If faced with compelling evidence of a specific error in a time, the Jury may adjust the time accordingly. A frequent cause of such error would be a one minute error in reading a watch.
d. If facced with compelling evidence of an irretrievable error in a time, or if the of official time is lost, the Chief Judge may grant a rerun.
a. No rerun may be granted when the protest involves a gate penalty.
b. None of the following limitations are intended to prevent the protesting of an alleged rules misinterpretation.
c. If two Gate Judges, or a Gate Judge and Section Judge, operating independently and from different vantage points agree, no protest is allowed. If they disagree and the disagreement cannot be otherwise resolved, the lesser penalty must be assessed, so there will be no protest allowed. If one Judge assesses a penalty but the other is uncertain or did not see it clearly, a protest will be considered.
d. If only one Judge saw the disputed infraction, or if two Judges were operating together from the same vantage point, a protest will be considered.
e. To be considered, a judging protest must be accompanied by the signatures of two witnesses. The Jury must consider both the vantage points and credibility of the witnesses. To dispute the agreed call of two Judges, as in (d) above, the vantage point(s) of the witnesses must be clearly superior to that of the Judges. If it upholds the protest, the Jury will direct the Chief of Scoring to reduce the disputed penalty.
f. Video is not allowed as support for a protest and is not to be reviewed or considered by the Chief Judge or Jury in rendering a decision.
3. Interference-lf a competitor is interfered with by another boat or by an act of an Official, he/she may be granted a rerun in accordance with Article 28.C.
A. A competitor has the right of appeal to the National Whitewater Slalom Committee against a decision of the Jury. Such an appeal must be lodged through his/her Regional Representative within ten days of the event. A fee of $25 plus $5 for costs must be paid, which is in addition to any protest fee paid to the Organizers. The NWSC shall hold a hearing only after fair notice is given to decide the matter. If the appeal is denied, only that portion of the cost fee not expended in conducting a mail vote of the Committee is refunded. Appeal to higher authority shall be directed first to the National Judicial Committee, and finally to the USACK Board. If the appeal is upheld, the entire $30 is refunded, as is the original protest fee, and the Organizers must bear the cost of the mail vote up to a maximum of $5.
B. If the appeal involves a matter of scoring, the NWSC must rule on whether, and in what manner, the score is to be changed. The appeal fee is handed to the Chief Judge at the race as notification and assurance that an appeal is to be filed. He/she must forward it promptly, along with his/her report on the matter, to the competitor's Regional NWSC representative. The written appeal is sent by the competitor as prescribed above. If results lists are printed before the outcome of an appeal is known, the fact of the appeal must be noted on the list and the outcome must be published when it is known.
C. If a protest involving the course or any aspect of the race organization is denied by the Jury, the protester's only recourse; at that time is to withdraw from the race and demand a refund of entry fees. If such demand is not agreed to, it may be appealed to the NWSC.
D. If the appeal involves a denied rerun, the Chief Judge, upon notification of the intent to appeal and receipt of the appeal fee, must grant the rerun. It will be timed and scored as usual, but its effect is conditional upon the outcome of the appeal.
A competitor may be disqualified from a single run, from both runs in a category, or from an entire race, depending on the nature and severity of an infraction.
A. Which course of action to choose is at the discretion of the Chief Judge in the following cases: Any competitor attempting to win a competition by irregular means, who breaks the present rules, fails to follow an Official's order, fails to observe the safety rules (Article 16), or starts in a boat which does not conform to the requirements (Article 5) shall be disqualified.
C. Deliberate misrepresentations on an entry form or in statements to Officials will result in disqualification from the category involved or from the entire race, depending on their nature.
E. The following will result in disqualification only for the run in which it occurred:
1. Capsize on the course (Article 23).
2. Being upside down crossing the finish line (Article 25).
3. Being unready to start in the published sequence, or appearing without the correct starting number, if negligence on the part of the competitor can be established .
4. Acceptance of outside assistance during a run. In the sense of this Article, the following is taken to mean outside assistance:
a. Any help by a second party given to a competitor or boat, such as:
i) to hold out, slide, or throw a competitor's lost paddle or a replacement paddle;
ii) to guide, slide or set in motion a boat;
iii) however, nothing in this Article shall prevent any team member (of the three boats) from helping each other.
b. Communication with the competitor by means of an electric loudspeaker or radio.
F. If a competitor is forced to break the rules by the action of another person, the Competition Committee decides if he/she will be disqualified or not for the competition.
A. Prizes will generally be awarded for the first three places in each category. Medals, if used, should be of gold, silver, and bronze, denoting first, second, and third place. Ribbons, if used, should be of blue, red and white, respectively. Other types of trophies or prizes may be given provided they conform with Article 38. Additional places may be given awards if the depth of the class merits it. In the C-2 classes, both members of the crew shall receive the appropriate award.
B. For championship events, care must be exercised to assure that awards are presented only to those who are eligible for them in accordance with Article 3.
A. The results list shall include the full name of each competitor; and/or USACK number if given, club, if any, Region or hometown, and times, penalties, and scores for both runs, and shall be listed in order of finish place within each category. The outcome of any formal protests shall also be given.
B. Two copies of all race results must be sent to the USACK offices and the Rankings Subcommittee Chair for use in the rankings and for permanent file. It is recommended they also be submitted to appropriate regional and national publications, including Canoe and Kayak Racing News.
C. Organizers should be aware of the importance of all results in computing rankings, and should strive for completeness and accuracy. Full names including Jr., III, etc., where applicable, are essential. USACK numbers are an excellent cross check on identity.
A. These rules may be amended at any time by a two-thirds vote of the National Whitewater Slalom Committee. At least 30 days before such a vote is taken, all proposed amendments must be submitted in writing to all Regional Slalom Representatives and to the NWSC Rules Committee, and must be published in the USACK national publication. Amendments shall take effect on January 1 of the year following adoption by the NWSC.
A. Nationals, Trials and Junior Olympics competitions are organized under the authority of the NWSC. The NWSC will solicit bids for these races, will appoint the hosting group, and must approve the date and place.
B. The NWSC will appoint the Chief Judge, who will see that the races are run in accordance with these rules, and to the satisfaction of the NWSC.
1. Team Trials will be run only in the ICF categories, Article 6.A.1.
3. Competitors in each category, including age-group categories, shall be seeded based on the approved rankings and recent race results, with the lower ranking boats at the beginning of the start list and the higher ranking boats at the end of the start list. At National Championships, the current National Champion, if present, shall always run last in his/her class.
D. The Course
1. The course must be designed by a three-member Course Commission appointed by the NWSC. The commission chair shall be a representative of the hosting group who is highly competent in course design and familiar with the site. The other two members of the commission shall be highly competent course designers from other geographical areas. The commission shall meet at the convenience of its members, but sufficiently prior to the race to assure compliance with Section 6 of this Article.
2. The courses for Team Trials should be challenging to top international competitors, and should, to the extent possible, resemble in nature and difficulty the courses expected to be found at the international races for which the trials are being held.
3. The course for National Championships should be designed to encourage participation by a broader range of competitors, and as such should be only moderately challenging to A-ranked competitors in order to give those of B ranking a reasonable opportunity to negotiate all of the gates.
4. The difficulty of the course for categories; categories C- 1W and C-2W should be reduced so these competitors have a reasonable opportunity to negotiate all of the gates. If the course is on unusually powerful water, the difficulty should be reduced for C-2M as well. The final decision on these matters lies with the Jury.
5. The course for age-group categories should be a difficulty commensurate with the average skill levels of these groups. When these events are held in conjunction with the Open Nationals, they should be on a separate day and should be run on a course which is substantively different, and usually easier, than the Open course. It is permissible to run the Open Nationals for categories C-1W, C-2W, and C-2M on the age-group course when these events are held in conjunction with each other.
6. After the course is erected, with all gates in position, a demonstration run must be made by at least one non-competitor. These should, if possible, include all boat types. The Jury must then approve the course.
E. Team Selection Method
1. At the first business meeting of the year, the NWSC shall determine a method of selection for National Teams. It is the duty of the NWSC Chair to ensure that this method is published in one or more official publications of the NWSC or USACK.